Natural Physics of Water

It is part of the natural physics of water and other fluids to always find their level and remain flat.  If disturbed in any way, motion ensues until the flat level is resumed.  If dammed up then released, the nature of all liquids is to quickly flood outwards taking the easiest course towards finding its new level.

The upper surface of a fluid at rest is a horizontal plane.  Because if a part of the surface were higher than the rest, those parts of the fluid which were under it would exert a greater pressure upon the surrounding parts than they receive from them, so that motion would take place amongst the particles and continue until there were none at a higher level than the rest, that is, until the upper surface of the whole mass of fluid became a horizontal plane.”  -W.T. Lynn, “First Principles of Natural Philosophy”

If the Earth is an extended flat plane, then this fundamental physical property of fluids finding and remaining level is consistent with experience and common sense.  If, however, the Earth is a giant sphere tilted on its vertical axis spinning through never-ending space then it follows that truly flat, consistently level surfaces do not exist here!  Moreover, if the Earth is spherical then it follows that the surface of all Earth’s water, including the massive oceans, must maintain a certain degree of convexity.  But this is contrary to the fundamental physical nature of water to always be and remain level!

The surface of all water, when not agitated by natural causes, such as winds, tides, earthquakes etc. is perfectly level.  The sense of sight proves this to every unprejudiced and reasonable mind.  Can any so-called scientist, who teaches that the earth is a whirling globe, take a heap of liquid water, whirl it round, and so make rotundity?  He cannot.  Therefore it is utterly impossible to prove that an ocean is a whirling rotund section of a globular earth, rushing through ‘space’ at the lying-given-rate of false philosophers.”  -William Thomas Wiseman, “The Earth An Irregular Plane”

If we were living on a whirling ball-Earth, every pond, lake, marsh, canal and other large body of standing water, each part would have to comprise a slight arc or semi-circle curveting downwards from the central summit.  For example, if the ball-Earth were 25,000 miles in circumference as NASA and modern astronomers say, then spherical trigonometry dictates the surface of all standing water must curve downwards an easily measureable 8 inches per mile multiplied by the square of the distance.  This means along a 6 mile channel of standing water the Earth would dip 6 feet on either end from the central peak.  To the benefit of true science, and to the detriment of modern astronomy’s pseudo-science, such an experiment can and has been tested.

In Cambridge, England there is a 20 mile canal called the Old Bedford which passes in a straight line through the Fenlands known as the Bedford Level.  The water has no interruption from locks or water-gates of any kind and remains stationary making it perfectly suitable for determining whether any amount of convexity/curvature actually exists.  In the latter part of the 19th century, Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, a famous Flat-Earther and author of the fine book, “Earth Not a Globe!  An Experimental Inquiry into the True Figure of the Earth: Proving it a Plane, Without Axial or Orbital Motion; and the Only Material World in the Universe!” travelled to the Bedford level and performed a series of experiments to determine whether the surface of standing water is flat or convex.

A boat, with a flag-staff, the top of the flag 5 feet above the surface of the water, was directed to sail from a place called ‘Welche’s Dam’ (a well-known ferry passage), to another called ‘Welney Bridge.’ These two points are six statute miles apart. The author, with a good telescope, went into the water; and with the eye about 8 inches above the surface, observed the receding boat during the whole period required to sail to Welney Bridge. The flag and the boat were distinctly visible throughout the whole distance! There could be no mistake as to the distance passed over, as the man in charge of the boat had instructions to lift one of his oars to the top of the arch the moment he reached the bridge. The experiment commenced about three o’clock in the afternoon of a summer’s day, and the sun was shining brightly and nearly behind or against the boat during the whole of its passage. Every necessary condition had been fulfilled, and the result was to the last degree definite and satisfactory. The conclusion was unavoidable that the surface of the water for a length of six miles did not to any appreciable extent decline or curvate downwards from the line of sight. But if the earth is a globe, the surface of the six miles length of water would have been 6 feet higher in the centre than at the two extremities.  From this experiment it follows that the surface of standing water is not convex, and therefore that the Earth is not a globe!  On the contrary, this simple experiment is all-sufficient to prove that the surface of the water is parallel to the line-of-sight, and is therefore horizontal, and that the Earth cannot be other than a plane!”  -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!  An Experimental Inquiry into the True Figure of the Earth: Proving it a Plane, Without Axial or Orbital Motion; and the Only Material World in The Universe!” (12-13)

In a second experiment, Dr. Rowbotham placed seven flags along the edge of the water each one mile distant from the next with their tops positioned 5 feet above the surface.  Near the last one he also positioned a longer, 8 foot staff bearing a 3 foot flag so that its bottom aligned precisely with the tops of the other flags.  He then mounted a telescope at a height of 5 feet behind the first flag and took his observations.  If the Earth was a globe of 25,000 miles, each successive flag would have to decline a definite and determined amount below the last.  The first and second flags simply established the line of sight, the third flag should then fall 8 inches below the second, the fourth flag 32 inches below, the fifth 6 feet, the sixth 10 feet 8 inches, and the seventh flag should be a clear 16 feet 8 inches below the line of sight!  Even if the Earth was a globe of a hundred thousand miles, an amount of easily measurable curvature should and would still be evident in this experiment.  But the reality is not a single inch of curvature was detected and the flags all lined up perfectly as consistent with a flat plane.

The rotundity of the earth would necessitate the above conditions; but as they cannot be found to exist, the doctrine must be pronounced as only a simple theory, having no foundation in fact–a pure invention of misdirected genius; splendid in its comprehensiveness and bearing upon natural phenomena; but, nevertheless, mathematical and logical necessities compel its denunciation as an absolute falsehood.”  -Dr. Samuel Rowbotham, “Zetetic Astronomy, Earth Not a Globe!” (14)

Dr. Rowbotham conducted several other experiments using telescopes, spirit levels, and “theodolites,” special precision instruments used for measuring angles in horizontal or vertical planes.  By positioning them at equal heights aimed at each other successively he proved over and over the Earth to be perfectly flat for miles without a single inch of curvature.  His findings caused quite a stir in the scientific community and thanks to 30 years of his efforts, the shape of the Earth became a hot topic of debate around the turn of the nineteenth century.

Is water level, or is it not?’ was a question once asked of an astronomer. ‘Practically, yes; theoretically, no,’ was the reply.  Now, when theory does not harmonize with practice, the best thing to do is to drop the theory. (It is getting too late, now to say ‘So much the worse for the facts!’) To drop the theory which supposes a curved surface to standing water is to acknowledge the facts.  Whenever experiments have been tried on the surface of standing water, the surface has always been found to be level. If the Earth were a globe, the surface of all standing water would be convex. This is an experimental proof that Earth is not a globe.”  -William Carpenter, “100 Proofs the Earth is Not a Globe”

Since any given body of water must have a level surface, no one part higher than another, and seeing that all our oceans (a few inland seas excepted) are connected together, it follows that they are all VIRTUALLY OF THE SAME LEVEL.”  -The English Mechanic, 26th, June 1896

Astronomers say the magical magnetism of gravity is what keeps all the oceans of the world stuck to the ball-Earth.  They say that because the Earth is so massive, by virtue of this mass it creates a magic force able to hold people, oceans and atmosphere tightly clung to the underside of the spinning ball.  Unfortunately, however, they cannot provide any practical example of this on a scale smaller than the planetary.  For example, a spinning wet tennis ball has the exact opposite effect of the supposed ball-Earth! Any water poured over it simply falls off the sides, and giving it a spin results in water flying off 360 degrees like a dog shaking after a bath.  Astronomers concede the wet tennis ball example displays the opposite effect of their supposed ball-Earth, but claim that at some unknown mass, the magic adhesive properties of gravity suddenly kick in allowing the spinning wet tennis ball-Earth to keep every drop of “gravitized” water stuck to the surface.  Again, their theory flies in the face of all practical evidence, but they have been running with it for 500 years, so why stop now?

If the Earth were a globe, rolling and dashing through ‘space’ at the rate of ‘a hundred miles in five seconds of time,’ the waters of seas and oceans could not, by any known law, be kept on its surface – the assertion that they could be retained under these circumstances being an outrage upon human understanding and credulity! But as the Earth – that is, the habitable world of dry land – is found to be ‘standing out of the water and in the water’ of the ‘mighty deep,’ whose circumferential boundary is ice, we may throw the statement back into the teeth of those who make it and flaunt before their faces the flag of reason and common sense, inscribed with a proof that the Earth is not a globe.”  -William Carpenter, “100 Proofs the Earth is Not a Globe” (86)

In one portion of its long route, the great river Nile flows for a thousand miles with a fall of only one foot!  This is a feat which, of course, would be a sheer impossibility if the Earth had spherical curvature.  Many other rivers including the Congo in West Africa, the Amazon in South America, and the Mississippi in North America all flow for thousands of miles in directions totally incompatible with the supposed globularity of the Earth as well.

Rivers run DOWN to the sea because of the inclination of their beds.  Rising at an altitude above sea-level, in some cases thousands of feet above the sea, they follow the easiest route to their level – the sea.  The ‘Parana’ and ‘Paraguay’ in South America are navigable for over 2,000 miles, and their waters run the same way until they find their level of stability, where the sea tides begin.  But if the world be a globe, the ‘Amazon’ in South America that flows always in an easterly direction, would sometimes be running uphill and sometimes down, according to the movement of the globe.  Then the ‘Congo’ in West Africa, that always pursues a westerly course to the sea, would in the same manner be running alternately up and down.  When that point of the globe exactly between them was up, they would both be running up, although in opposite directions; and when the globe took half a turn, they would both be running down!  We know from practical experiment that water will find its level, and cannot by any possibility remain other than level, or flat, or horizontal – whatever term may be used to express the idea.  It is therefore quite out of the range of possibility that rivers could do as they would have to do on a globe.”  -Thomas Winship, “Zetetic Cosmogeny” (110)

Whoever heard of a river in any part of its course flowing uphill? Yet this it would require to do were the Earth a Globe. Rivers, like the Mississippi, which flow from the North southwards towards the Equator, would need, according to Modem Astronomic theory, to run upwards, as the Earth at the Equator is said to bulge out considerably more, or, in other words, is higher than at any other part. Thus the Mississippi, in its immense course of over 3,000 miles, would have to ascend 11 miles before it reached the Gulf of Mexico!”  -David Wardlaw Scott, “Terra Firma” (126)

There are rivers which flow east, west, north, and south – that is, rivers are flowing in all directions over the Earth’s surface, and at the same time. Now, if the Earth were a globe, some of these rivers would be flowing up-hill and others down, taking it for a fact that there really is an ‘up’ and a ‘down’ in nature, whatever form she assumes. But, since rivers do not flow up-hill, and the globular theory requires that they should, it is a proof that the Earth is not a globe.”  -William Carpenter, “100 Proofs the Earth is Not a Globe” (85)

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