Precognition and Dream Psi

Receiving direct knowledge or perception of the future, Precognition, is another common psi ability with a long-standing history.  Precognition is usually achieved through prophetic dreams, during deep meditation, or spontaneously received as images in the mind’s eye.  The existence of this paranormal ability, however, once again goes against the Newtonian grain and strikes close to the heart of people’s conceptions of time and free will.  Because if precognition is real, then the future must in some sense be pre-written and determined.

Time is not at all what it seems.  It does not flow in only one direction, and the future exists simultaneously with the past. The distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.”  -Albert Einstein

Both in common experience and in physics, time has generally been considered to be a primary, independent and universally applicable order, perhaps the most fundamental one known to us.  Now, we have been led to propose that it is secondary and that, like space, it is to be derived from a higher-dimensional ground, as a particular order.”  -David Bohm

When asked to define time, the physicist John Wheeler once replied that time is what stops everything from happening at once.  Scientists are still searching for a good definition, because the problem of time is that it doesn’t appear to exist!”  -Ervin Laszlo and Jude Currivan, “Cosmos” (68)

I have personally experienced Precognition on a few occasions but none as amazing or memorable as the following.  During college I had what seemed to be a normal dream involving myself and my friend, wearing our typical attire, talking outside my dorm about what we wanted to do that day.  Now I didn’t remember even having the dream until the next day as my friend and I were approaching my dorm; every word she said started triggering the clearest, most mind-blowing déjà vu as the dream came flooding back to me.  We were both wearing the same clothes I’d envisioned, we were standing in the same place, and every word she said was exactly as I had dreamt.  Seizing the opportunity to test and manifest this amazing clarity of déjà vu I was experiencing, I quickly blurted out the entire next sentence that I knew she would be saying and matched her word for word in real time!  Stunned at my simultaneous telepathic mocking, she abruptly stopped talking and I laughed uncontrollably trying to explain the whole thing.

That and many other precognitive experiences forever changed my perception of the arrow of time.  If time is truly linear then we can only remember the past and cannot in any way remember the future.  But if it is impossible to remember the future, then what was my dream?  How was I able to vividly see and remember the entire scenario in precise detail the night before it happened?  I guarantee anyone who felt my paradigm-crushing déjà vu, would agree that this synchronicity was far beyond some quirky coincidence.

Even our most ancient writings pay homage to the premonitory power of dreams, as is evidenced in the biblical account of Pharoah’s dream of seven fat and seven lean cows … The proximity the unconscious mind has to the atemporal realm of the implicate may also play a role.  Because our dreaming self is deeper in the psyche than our conscious self – and thus closer to the primal ocean in which past, present, and future become one – it may be easier for it to access information about the future.”  -Michael Talbot, “The Holographic Universe” (210)

One near-death experiencer described what he saw once the filter of human perception was lifted. He talked of seeing the ‘panoramic view of life’: … everything from the beginning, my birth, my ancestors, my children, my wife, everything comes together simultaneously. I saw everything about me, and about everyone who was around me. I saw everything they were thinking now, what they thought then, what was happening before, what was happening now. There is no time, there is no sequence of events, no such thing as limitation, of distance, of period, of time, of place. I could be anywhere I wanted to be simultaneously.” –David Icke, “The David Icke Guide to the Global Conspiracy” (55)

President Lincoln dreamt of his own assassination a week before he died.  British Aeronautics Engineer J.W. Dunne documented several prophetic dreams come true in his 1927 book “An Experiment with Time.”  There are even 19 documented cases of people who precognitively saw the sinking of the Titanic.  Some by passengers who acknowledged their premonitions and survived, others by passengers who ignored their intuition and drowned, and others still by non-passengers.

Swedish scientist/mystic Emanuel Swedenborg had a gift for precognition and documented many independently verified examples. One evening, on June 19th, 1759 upon arriving at a dinner party in Goteborg, Swedenborg had a vision of Stockholm burning 300 miles away.  He told everyone in attendance including the mayor about the blazing fire and that it had stopped only 3 doors from his home.  The next day a messenger from Stockholm arrived and confirmed Swedenborg’s incredible vision.

Dutch psychic Gerard Croiset was well-known for the several “chair tests” he accurately predicted.  First the experimenter randomly selected a chair from the seating plan of some upcoming public event in a large theater, stadium, or auditorium anywhere in the world.  There could be no reserved seating to prevent possible collusion or trickery.  Then without telling him the name, the location or the event, knowing only the date and seating plan, Croiset consistently gave accurate and detailed descriptions of the people who would be sitting in any given chair. Over the course of 25 years numerous investigators in Europe and America were stunned by Croiset’s accurate predictions including specifics like gender, dress, features, occupation, and personality.

For instance, on January 6, 1969, in a study conducted by Dr. Jule Eisenbud, a clinical professor of psychiatry at the University of Colorado Medical School, Croiset was told that a chair had been chosen for an event that would take place on January 23, 1969.  Croiset, who was in Utrecht, Holland, at the time, told Eisenbud that the person who would sit in the chair would be a man five feet nine inches in height who brushed his black hair straight back, had a gold tooth in his lower jaw, a scar on his big toe, who worked in both science and industry, and sometimes got his lab coat stained by a greenish chemical.  On January 23, 1969, the man who sat down in the chair, which was in an auditorium in Denver, Colorado, fit Croiset’s description in every way but one.  He was not five feet nine, but five feet nine and three-quarters.”  -Michael Talbot, “The Holographic Universe” (207)

Psi-researcher Dean Radin highlighted the interesting case of Anne Ring in his “Entangled Minds” book.  She sent him the following in a letter:  “Many years ago I had a very strange dream concerning my father.  I dreamt that he was decorating the house (the way we do in England – or used to – with paper chains, holly, etc.).  Except the decorations he was using were not the type used for Christmas.  Suddenly he sat down on a chair and collapsed and he died.  I woke up crying so loudly that it woke up my husband.  I looked at the clock and it was exactly 2 a.m. California time.  I told my husband the dream and he just said, ‘Well it’s nothing, you are always having strange dreams, go back to sleep.’  But the dream had disturbed me and it took a long while for me to get back to sleep.   The following morning was Thanksgiving Day and as I was preparing the meal the telephone rang and it was my brother calling from London to say my father had died.  It was a terrible shock because I had seen him in May of that year and he was in robust health (in fact, he had not ever been ill or in hospital in his life).  I asked my brother when it had happened and he replied that our stepmother had just called him and told him it had happened at 10 a.m. London time: The exact moment that I had the dream (2 a.m. California time).  By the way, he was putting up decorations because it was his wedding anniversary to my stepmother and they were going to have a party that night.”

How shall we interpret this experience?  Is it a poignant coincidence or is it a case of genuine clairvoyance?  This was the one and only time Mrs. Ring ever had a dream like this, and it contained details and timings that matched real-world events.  I’ve been told similar experiences by professors at major universities, by program directors at the NSF, and by generals in the Army.  These are not naïve people prone to fantasy.  They appreciate the difference between meaningless coincidence and genuinely exceptional events.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (105)

The most rigorous scientific study of dream psi ever took place at the Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York.  Over the course of several years, Psychologists Montague Ullman and Stanley Krippner ran hundreds of in-house and at-home dream sessions with thousands of volunteers.  Experiments usually involved trying to predict random images chosen by computer and displayed overnight in a locked room at the dream lab.  Each day volunteers attempted to dream of tomorrow’s picture then recorded their impressions for Ullman and Krippner to cross-check.  In 2003 when British psychologists Simon Sherwood and Chris Roe performed a meta-analysis of all the Maimonides dream psi results they found that the overall hit rate was associated with odds against chance of 22 billion to 1.

In his work at the Dream laboratory at Maimonides Medical Center, Montague Ullman, along with psychologist Stanley Krippner and researcher Charles Honorton, produced compelling evidence that accurate precognitive information can also be obtained in dreams.  In their study, volunteers were asked to spend eight consecutive nights at the sleep laboratory, and each night they were asked to try to dream about a picture that would be chosen at random the next day and shown to them.  Ullman and his colleagues hoped to get one success out of eight, but found that some subjects could score as many as five ‘hits’ out of eight.  For example, after waking, one volunteer said that he had dreamed of ‘a large concrete building’ from which a ‘patient’ was trying to escape.  The patient had a white coat on like a doctor’s coat and had gotten only ‘as far as the archway.’  The painting chosen at random the next day turned out to be Van Gogh’s Hospital Corridor at St. Remy, a watercolor depicting a lone patient standing at the end of a bleak and massive hallway exiting through a door beneath an archway.”  -Michael Talbot, “The Holographic Universe” (206)

Other evidence such as psychic “forced-choice” experiments also supports the idea that we can see into the future.  These entail having participants guess the outcome of future events with calculable possibilities like what playing card will turn up or what dice number will roll.  In 1989 the Maimonides Center’s Charles Honorton and Diane Ferrari published a meta-analysis of all forced-choice precognition experiments conducted since 1935.  They found 309 studies with 50,000 participants totaling 2 million trials where the time between prediction and event ranged from milliseconds to a year.  The results were surprisingly positive with odds against chance of ten million billion billion to one.

One of the most convincing and astonishing proofs of precognition was discovered when University of Amsterdam’s Dr. Dick Bierman hooked several poker players to electrodermal instruments to test learned responses in gambling addicts.  He found that they all registered rapid changes in electrodermal activity just before being handed their cards.  Not only this but the differences in EDA corresponded with the type of cards being drawn.  When about to receive a bad hand participants showed physiological activity indicating a heightened fight or flight response. When about to receive a favorable hand their EDA calmed towards a relaxation response.  This indicates that on a subconscious physiological level, somehow we already “know” the future.

Building on Bierman’s work, Dean Radin also hooked volunteers up to electrodermal and other physiological instruments (heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductivity etc.) to test for recordable physical effects of anticipating future stimuli.  In his experiment volunteers would click a mouse button, wait 5 seconds, view a random picture displayed on their monitor for 3 seconds, then watch as the screen went blank for 10 seconds and began again.  The images randomly shown were either tranquil photos such as landscapes and nature scenes or disturbing photos such as autopsies and erotica.

As expected, the participant’s body would calm down immediately after he or she observed the tranquil scenes, and become aroused after being confronted by the erotic or disturbing.  Naturally, study participants recorded the largest response once they’d seen the photos.  However, what Radin discovered was that his subjects were also anticipating what they were about to see, registering physiological responses before they’d seen the photo.  As if trying to brace themselves, their responses were highest before they saw an image that was disturbing.  Blood pressure would drop in the extremities about a second before the image was flashed.”  -Lynne McTaggart, “The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe,” (169)

The idea of presentiment assumes that we are constantly and unconsciously scanning our future, and preparing to respond to it.  If this is true, then whenever our future involves an emotional response, we’d predict that our nervous system would become aroused before the emotional picture appears … As expected, skin conductance reacted 2 to 3 seconds after the presentation of an emotional stimulus, and the expected differences between the calm and emotional responses were clearly evident.  But the presentiment effect, which was predicted to occur before the stimulus, was also observed … The skin-conductance levels were virtually identical before the button press, but as soon as the button was pressed they began to diverge in accordance with the future stimulus.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (166-7)

Nobel laureate Kary Mullis had the opportunity to participate in Dean Radin’s presentiment experiment and was quite impressed with the results.  He went on National Public Radio’s May 1999 Science Friday program afterwards stating, “I could see about 3 seconds into the future.  It’s spooky.  You sit there and watch this little trace, and about three seconds, on average, before the picture comes on, you have a little response in your skin conductivity which is in the same direction that a large response occurs after you see the picture.  Some pictures make you have a rise in conductivity, some make you have a fall.  He’s done that over and over again with people.  That, with me, is on the edge of physics itself, with time.  There’s something funny about time that we don’t understand because you shouldn’t be able to do that.”

In 2004 psychophysiologist Rollin McCraty replicated Bierman and Radin’s experiments and published his results in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.  With odds against chance of 1000 to 1 he found that heart rate significantly slowed before future disturbing pictures and that the brain responded differently before the two different types of stimuli.

Lest we forget what’s going on in this experiment, it’s useful to be reminded what these results mean: The brains of both men and women were activated in specific areas before erotic pictures appeared, even though no one knew in advance that those pictures were about to be selected.  In other words, the brain is responding to future events.  Given the controversial nature of this claim, Bierman discussed in detail alternative explanations for these results … He concluded that the fMRI results were valid, and in agreement with the other studies based on skin-conductance and heart and brain measures … When you step back from the details of these studies, what you find is a spectacular body of converging evidence indicating that our understanding of time is seriously incomplete.  These studies mean that some aspect of our minds can perceive the future.  Not infer the future, or anticipate the future, or figure out the future.  But actually perceive it.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (179)

In ordinary states of consciousness and without the aid of technology most people are able to remember the past but not the future.  This has led to the philosophical idea of an “arrow of time” shooting from past to future with us riding along the present.  In altered states of consciousness or with the aid of technology, however, many people, myself included, have been able to experience and remember future events in detail.  Perhaps then it is more likely that time, as our ancient ancestors believed, is cyclic and infinite, not straight and finite.  It seems that ultimately, our consciousness exists outside of this time/space/matter explicate hologram and therefore under the right conditions has the ability to access and experience anything in the implicate.  Physicist David Bohm concurred and wrote that, “when people dream of accidents correctly and do not take the plane or ship, it is not the actual future that they were seeing.  It was merely something in the present which is implicate and moving toward making that future.  In fact, the future they saw differed from the actual future because they altered it.  Therefore I think it’s more plausible to say that, if these phenomena exist, there’s an anticipation of the future in the implicate order in the present.  As they used to say, coming events cast their shadows in the present.  Their shadows are being cast deep in the implicate order.”

Such incidents strongly suggest that the future is not set, but is plastic and can be changed.  But this view also brings with it a problem.  If the future is still in a state of flux, what is Croiset tapping into when he describes the individual who will sit down in a particular chair seventeen days hence?  How can the future both exist and not exist?  Loye provides a possible answer.  He believes that reality is a giant hologram, and in it the past, present, and future are indeed fixed, at least up to a point.  The rub is that it is not the only hologram.  There are many such holographic entities floating in the timeless and spaceless waters of the implicate, jostling and swimming around one another like so many amoebas.  ‘Such holographic entities could also be visualized as parallel worlds, parallel universes,’ says Loye.  Thus, the future of any given holographic universe is predetermined, and when a person has a precognitive glimpse of the future, they are tuning into the future of that particular hologram only.  But like amoebas, these holograms also occasionally swallow and engulf each other, melding and bifurcating like the protoplasmic globs of energy that they really are. Bohm’s and Loye’s descriptions seem to be two different ways of trying to express the same thing – a view of the future as a hologram that is substantive enough for us to perceive it, but malleable enough to be susceptible to change.  Others have used still different words to sum up what appears to be the same basic thought.  Cordero describes the future as a hurricane that is beginning to form and gather momentum, becoming more concrete and unavoidable as it approaches.  Ingo Swann, a gifted psychic who has produced impressive results in various studies, including Puthoff and Targ’s remote-viewing research, speaks of the future as composed of ‘crystallizing possibilities.’  The Hawaiian kahunas, widely esteemed for their precognitive powers, also speak of the future as fluid, but in the process of ‘crystallizing,’ and believe that great world events are crystallized furthest in advance, as are the most important events in a person’s life, such as marriage, accidents, and death.”  -Michael Talbot, “The Holographic Universe” (211-212)

Time, then, is much like a hologram that already stands complete; it’s a subjective sensory effect of a progressively moving point of view.  There’s no beginning or end to a hologram, it’s already everywhere, complete – in fact, the appearance of being ‘unfinished’ is part of its completeness.  Even the phenomenon of ‘unfoldment’ itself reflects a limited point of view: There is no enfolded and unfolded universe, only a becoming awareness.  Our perception of events happening in time is analogous to a traveler watching the landscape unfold before him.  But to say that the landscape unfolds before the traveler is merely a figure of speech – nothing is actually unfolding; nothing is actually becoming manifest.  There’s only the progression of awareness … In fact, this is a holographic universe.  Each point of view reflects a position that’s defined by the viewer’s unique level of consciousness … A hologram, we might say, is in and of itself a process.  There’s nothing fixed in a three-dimensional hologram.  And what then of a four-dimensional hologram?  It would include all possible instances of itself simultaneously.  To change seems to be to move through time, but if time itself is transcended, then there’s no such thing as sequence.  If all is now, there’s nothing to follow from here to there.”  -David R. Hawkins, M.D., Ph.D., “Power Vs. Force” (232-239)


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Clairvoyance and Remote Viewing

Clairvoyance, or as the intelligence agencies have renamed it, Remote Viewing, is the psychic ability to internally “see” and obtain information on a given target object, person, location or event across both space and time.  Mystics, shamans, yogis, meditators, out-of-body experiencers, near-death experiencers, psychedelic users, people under hypnosis, and naturally gifted psychics have all reported the ability of clairvoyance for centuries.  More recently however, experiments performed by the CIA, US Army, SRI and PEAR laboratories suggest that given proper training, everyone is capable of cultivating this skill of inner vision.

Remote viewing is broadly speaking a controlled shifting of awareness  performed from the normal waking state of consciousness … Humans are all part of a collective Mind existing beyond the limitations of physical space and time.  Anyone who is focused into this ‘dimension’, ‘plane’ or ‘state,’ which is a level of energy or vibration, either permanently or temporarily, can potentially project their consciousness anywhere within time or space in an instant.  Remote viewing works therefore by means of the ‘remote viewer’ projecting, or tuning their consciousness into this spaceless and timeless aspect of the universe.” -Adrian Cooper, “Our Ultimate Reality” (130)

The term “Remote Viewing” was coined in the early 1970s by Stanford Research Institute’s physicists Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff.  In their experiments, one person (the “agent”) would travel to a distant location randomly selected by computer, while another person (the “viewer”) would attempt to clairvoyantly see and describe where the agent went.  In Targ and Puthoff’s initial experiments, one Soviet psychic was consistently able to accurately describe several locations, sometimes before the agent arrived, and sometimes before the computer had even made the selection!  Throughout twenty years of research they carried out hundreds of successful tests using several different viewers and even demonstrated these feats on live television including on 60 Minutes and the Donahue show.

In these carefully controlled experimental tests spanning two decades, many different subjects sat in a windowless office, closed their eyes, and explored the world outside.  These individuals were consistently able to experience and accurately describe distant scenes and events from coast-to-coast and even continent-to-continent, in both present and future time.  The SRI experiments demonstrated unequivocal evidence for extrasensory perception and the existence of the nonlocal mind, outside the brain and body.  The ability of human awareness to make remarkable connections apparently transcends the conventional limitations of time and space.”  -Russell Targ and Jane Katra, “Miracles of Mind” (6)

One day in 1973 Targ and Puthoff were contacted by Burbank, California Police Commissioner Pat Price who had been closely following their work and wanted to help.  Price said that he had been practicing clairvoyance for years and successfully using it in his police work to catch criminals.  Whenever dispatch reported a crime he would sit in his office, close his eyes, and psychically scan the city looking for someone matching the description. Once he pin-pointed their location in his mind’s eye, he would send out a car to check, and actually succeeded in catching several criminals this way.

For Price’s first informal experiment at SRI, Targ had him remotely view Puthoff who was on vacation.  Sitting together in the Stanford lab each day, using Puthoff as the unwitting agent, Price described what he saw, recounting scenes of churches, market squares, and volcanic mountains all very characteristic of Central America.  When Puthoff returned, he confirmed that his holiday was in Costa Rica and he had indeed visited churches, markets, and mountains on the very days that Price remotely viewed them.

Price took over as chief remote viewer.  Hal and Russ underwent nine  trials with him, following their usual double-blind protocol of sealed target spots near Palo Alto – Hoover Tower, a nature preserve, a radio telescope, a marina, a toll plaza, a drive-in movie theater, an arts and crafts plaza, a Catholic church and a swimming pool complex.  Independent judges concluded that Price had scored seven hits out of the nine.  In some cases, like the Hoover Tower, Price even recognized it and correctly identified it by name.  Price was noted for his incredible accuracy.”  -Lynne McTaggart, “The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe,” (153)

Through SRI the CIA got wind of Price’s skills and initiated the now declassified Projects “GrillFlame” and “Scanate” in an attempt to clairvoyantly spy on sensitive targets.  Price was given nothing but the latitude and longitude of a remote location and asked to describe all details that he could see.  With unwavering confidence Pat polished his glasses, sat back in his chair, closed his eyes and began recounting what he saw.  It was a military airfield with a few buildings scattered around.  There was a large 8 wheeled gantry set upon tracks, a big cluster of compressed gas cylinders at one end, and inside the buildings were masses of steel gores. Price then opened his eyes and drew pictures of the building layout, the cylinders, the gantry, and gores.  When the results came back from CIA spy satellites and ground Intel, it turned out that the target site was indeed a Soviet military airfield and nuclear testing area in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.  The building layout, cylinders, 8 wheeled gantry, and even the steel gores inside were all confirmed to be just as Price described.

Sadly Pat Price died in 1975, but Targ and Puthoff continued their remote viewing projects and in 1978 met someone they later described as “the greatest natural psychic ever to walk into our laboratory,” US Army Special Projects Intelligence Officer Joe McMoneagle.  A highly decorated and esteemed soldier, Joe McMoneagle had survived a near-death experience and had many out-of-body experiences which piqued his interest in remote viewing.  He said the experience of leaving and looking down on his own body started him on his psychic journey and forever changed his metaphysics.

For his first experiment at SRI, Joe was told only that he would be viewing a “technological” target within 100 miles of the San Fransisco Bay Area (which is full of possible technological locations such as military bases, airports, factories, power plants, cell towers, linear accelerators, radar installations and radio telescopes).  The actual target was the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the famous hydrogen bomb research facility directed by Edward Teller.  Without hesitation Joe picked up his pencil and began drawing what he saw in his mind’s eye:  the multipurpose laboratory complex, segmented one-story buildings nearby, the six-story administration building, a T-shaped building, a cylindrical roofed building and a large parking lot.  When Joe’s drawing was finished it was independently deemed as 85% accurate.

Joseph McMoneagle, remote viewer #001 in the U.S. Army’s formerly Top Secret project codenamed GRILLFLAME, STARGATE, and other exotic names.  McMoneagle has been repeatedly tested in numerous double-blind laboratory experiments and has been shown to have an ability to describe objects and events at a distance and in the future, sometimes in spectacular detail.  In one experiment, all that McMoneagle knew was that a person he hadn’t met before would be visiting a technological target, at a certain time, somewhere that could be reached within an hour’s drive around Silicon Valley in Northern California.  The number and range of possible technological targets that one can get to in a short drive around Silicon Valley is gigantic.  As it turned out, the target that the person arrived at was a particle beam accelerator, and that’s what McMoneagle drew.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (292)

In perhaps his most impressive viewing session on record, Joe was given absolutely no feedback whatsoever about where the agent would be traveling and he was able to draw an astonishing resemblance independently verified as 94% accurate.  The target was a windmill farm in the foothills of Livermore Valley, and that’s exactly what Joe drew: Multiple wind generators, rotating blades, with poles scattered amongst the hills all connected in a grid.

Human beings, talented or otherwise, appear to have a latent ability to see anywhere across any distance.  The most talented remote viewers clearly can enter some framework of consciousness, allowing them to observe scenes anywhere in the world.  But the inescapable conclusion of their experiments is that anyone has the ability to do this, if they are just primed for it – even those highly skeptical of the entire notion … Hal Puthoff gathered together nine remote viewers in total, mostly beginners with no track record as psychics, who performed in total over fifty trials.  Again, an impartial panel of judges compared targets with transcripts of subject descriptions.  The descriptions may have contained some inaccuracies, but they were detailed and accurate enough to enable the judges to directly match description with target roughly half the time – a highly significant result.”  ”  -Lynne McTaggart, “The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe,” (155)

In her 1995 CIA funded evaluation of all Remote Viewing experiments conducted since 1970, Dr. Jessica Utts concluded that: “Using the standards applied to any other area of science it is concluded that psychic functioning has been well established.  The statistical results of the studies examined are far beyond what is expected by chance.  Arguments that these results could be due to methodological flaws in the experiments are soundly refuted.  Effects of similar magnitude to those found in government-sponsored research at SRI and SAIC have been replicated at a number of laboratories across the world.  Such consistency cannot readily be explained by claims of flaws or fraud.”

In addition to SRI’s studies, Princeton University’s Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) Laboratory also conducted 25 years of remote viewing research with 653 trials involving 72 participants.  Headed up by Dean of Engineering Robert Jahn and psychologist Brenda Dunne, in a 2003 meta-analysis they summarized their findings regarding the evidence for remote viewing.  Their overall assessment showed with odds against chance of 33 million to 1, the results were definitely not due to luck or coincidence.  Jahn and Dunne concluded, “the overall results of these analyses leave little doubt, by any criterion, that the data contain considerably more information about the designated targets than can be attributed to chance guessing.

In the 1980s, I worked on a top secret psi research program for the U.S. government (now declassified).  At the first research briefing I attended, I was shown examples of high-quality remote viewing obtained under exceptionally well-controlled circumstances.  I asked in amazement, ‘Why is psi still considered controversial by the scientific mainstream?  Why not just conduct an experiment of 20 or 30 trials with this type of remote viewing skill?  That ought to convince anyone that psi is real.’  The answer, explained to me patiently by physicist Ed May, was simple.  He said, ‘You’re making the rational man mistake.’  He meant that we usually assume science is a rational process, but it’s not … The technical term for one form of this irrational phenomenon is the ‘confirmation bias.’  This psychological quirk causes evidence supporting your beliefs to be perceived as plausible, and evidence challenging your beliefs to be perceived as implausible.  Studies in social psychology have repeatedly demonstrated that journal reviewers invariably judge articles being submitted for publication according to their prior beliefs.  Those who agree with a hypothesis tend to judge a paper reporting positive results as an excellent piece of work, and those who disagree judge the very same paper as a flawed failure.  The former referees recommend publication and the latter don’t.  The final decision is left up to the editor, so if the editor doesn’t happen to agree with the paper’s hypothesis then there’s a good chance it won’t appear in the journal.  And then the evidence doesn’t exist as far as the rest of the scientific community is concerned.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (101-2)

The ability of remote viewing raises some interesting questions and serious objections regarding the scientific materialist paradigm.  Traditionally science has explained the miracle of sight as a purely material process taking place in the eyes and brain; however, this obviously conflicts with the research done at SRI and PEAR.  Anyone trained in remote viewing or anyone who has experienced out-of-body travel and witnessed looking down upon their own sleeping body would have to agree that there must be something much more mystical and immaterial responsible for vision.

Life magazine once featured Rosa Kuleshova, a Russian girl who could read perfectly clearly using her fingertips.  The Russian Academy of Science tested her repeatedly under controlled conditions and concluded that her abilities were genuine.  Italian Doctor Cesare Lombroso wrote about a blind patient who could see using her earlobe.  Harvard Doctor David Eisenberg even published an article about two Chinese girls who can read using their armpits!

Despite our unwavering conviction that we see with our eyes, reports persist of individuals who possess, ‘eyeless sight,’ or the ability to see with other areas of their bodies.  Recently David Eisenberg, M.D., a clinical research fellow at the Harvard Medical School, published an account of two school-age Chinese sisters in Beijing who can ‘see’ well enough with the skin in their armpits to read notes and identify colors.  In Italy the neurologist Cesare Lombroso studied a blind girl who could see with the tip of her nose and the lobe of her left ear.  In the 1960s the prestigious Soviet Academy of Science investigated a Russian peasant woman named Rosa Kuleshova, who could see photographs and read newspapers with the tips of her fingers, and pronounced her abilities genuineNow, because every part of a hologram contains the whole, every part of the body – the hand, toe, knee – has the ability to pass frequency patterns to the brain, which it transforms into holograms that we can ‘see’. This means that people really do have eyes in their backsides. I have heard some people speak of being able to see 360 degrees when they have entered altered states of consciousness that make them more attuned to these senses by withdrawing their focus from the five-sense consensus reality. All this is perfectly explainable from the holographic perspective.”  -Michael Talbot, “The Holographic Universe” (236-7)


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Positivity, Prayer and Remote Healing

Even if they don’t believe in mind over matter, most people behave as though their thoughts do affect the world.  Surveys have shown that the vast majority of the world’s population prays and many throughout history have witnessed and testified to the power of prayer.  The majority of such prayers essentially ask for God, the Universe, or Nature to “roll the dice favorably” in our direction, thus things like prayer and distance healing are also testable PK techniques.

Randolph Byrd in 1988 attempted to determine in a randomized, double-blind trial whether remote prayer would have any effect on patients in a coronary care unit.  Over 10 months, nearly 400 patients were divided into two groups, and only half (unbeknownst to them) were prayed for by a Christian prayer group outside the hospital.  All patients had been evaluated, and there was no statistical difference in their condition before treatment.  However, after treatment, those who’d been prayed for had significantly less severe symptoms and fewer instances of pneumonia and also required less assistance on a ventilator and fewer antibiotics than patients who hadn’t been prayed for.”  -Lynne McTaggart, “The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe,” (186-7)

The effectiveness of therapeutic touch has also been demonstrated in several studies.  For example, Dr. Janet Quinn, an associate professor and assistant director of nursing research at the University of South Carolina at Columbia, decided to see if therapeutic touch could lower the anxiety levels of heart patients.  To accomplish this she devised a double-blind study in which one group of nurses trained in the technique would pass their hands over a group of heart patients’ bodies.  A second group with no training would pass their hands over the bodies of another group of heart patients, but without actually performing the technique.  Quinn found that the anxiety levels in the authentically treated patients dropped 17 percent after only five minutes of therapy, but there was no change in anxiety levels among the patients who received the ‘fake’ treatment.  Quinn’s study was the lead story in the Science Times section of the March 26, 1985, issue of the New York Times.”  -Michael Talbot, “The Holographic Universe” (173)

In 1998 Dr. Elisabeth Targ and Fred Sicher designed a famous double-blind study on the effects of remote healing for advanced AIDS patients.  They selected 20 patients with the same T-cell counts and the same degree of illness, and then subjected 10 of them to various distance healing modalities for 6 months.  Since it was double-blind, neither patients nor doctors knew who was being healed, and all information was kept in sealed envelopes.  Only the healers themselves knew their targets, and to remove any individual bias, the healers had a weekly rotation guaranteeing that the healing effect itself (not one particular variety of it) was studied.

After four months of searching, Fred and Elisabeth had their healers – an eclectic assortment of forty religious and spiritual healers all across America, many highly respected in their fields … several Christian healers, a handful of evangelicals, one Jewish kabbalist healer and a few Buddhists.  A number of others were trained in non-religious healing schools, such as the Barbara Brennan School of Healing Light, or worked with complex energy fields, attempting to change colors or vibrations in a patient’s aura.  Some used contemplative healing or visualizations; others worked with tones and planned to sing or ring bells on behalf of the patient, the purpose of which, they claimed, was to reattune their chakras, or energy centers.  A few worked with crystals.  One healer, who’d been trained as a Lakota Sioux shaman, intended to use the Native American pipe ceremony.  Drumming and chanting would enable him to go into a trance during which he would contact spirits on the patient’s behalf.  They also enlisted a Qigong master from China, who said that he would be sending harmonizing qi energy to the patients … Collectively, the healers had an average of 17 years of experience in healing and reported an average of 117 distant healings apiece.”  -Lynne McTaggart, “The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe,” (188-89)

After 6 months, 4 of the original 20 patients had died, and several were becoming more ill, but several more were regaining health.  When the files were opened, it turned out that the 4 patients who died and the patients with declining health were all in the control group.  The 10 patients who received a weekly rotation of various remote healings all had improved overall health and T-cell counts.

Elisabeth was open-minded about it, but the conservative in her kept surfacing … She remained fairly convinced that Native American pipe smoking and chakra chanting had nothing to do with curing a group of men with an illness so serious and so advanced that they were virtually certain to die.  And then she saw her patients with end-stage AIDS getting better.  During the six months of the trial period, 40 percent of the control population died.  But all ten of the patients in the healing group were not only still alive but had become healthier, on the basis of their own reports and medical evaluations.  At the end of the study, the patients had been examined by a team of scientists, and their condition had yielded one inescapable conclusion:  the treatment was working.”  -Lynne McTaggart, “The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe,” (190)

Dr. Targ and Sicher decided to repeat the experiment this time with double the participants and control groups perfectly matched for age, degree of illness, personal habits and beliefs.  Once again, after 6 months the treated group was overall healthier in all areas than the control group.  The treated group had significantly fewer doctor visits, fewer hospitalizations, fewer AIDS-defining illnesses, lower severity of disease, and higher T-cell counts.  Only 3 people in the treatment group had been hospitalized compared with 12 in the control group, and only 2 people in the treatment group developed new AIDS-defining illnesses compared with 12 in the control group.

The results were inescapable.  No matter which type of healing they used, no matter what their view of a higher being, the healers were dramatically contributing to the physical and psychological well-being of their patients … In Elisabeth’s study, it didn’t seem to matter what method you used, so long as you held an intention for a patient to heal.  Calling on Spider Woman, a healing grandmother star figure common in the Native American culture, was every bit as successful as calling on Jesus.”  -Lynne McTaggart, “The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe,” (192-3)

My goal is simply to pave the way for free and fair scientific discourse on subjects that have previously been considered ‘non-rational.’  It’s our responsibility as scientists and physicians to speak based on fact, not opinion.  If there’s a benefit to distant healing, physicians and patients should consider it along with all the other proven treatments for disease.”  -Dr. Elisabeth Targ

As highlighted in the Targ/Sicher studies, regardless of the patient’s or healer’s beliefs, or which modality is used, a significant, repeatable distance healing effect has been measured in peer-reviewed double-blind studies.  It seems that the universal life force energy  (the “Qi” in Qigong, the “Ki” in Reiki, and the “Prana” in Pranayama) regardless of what we call it, how we cultivate it, or what we believe about it, responds to our conscious will and generates a transmutable, transmittable healing effect.

In the Copper Wall Project in Topeka, Kansas, a researcher named Elmer Green has shown that experienced healers have abnormally high electric field patterns during healing sessions.  In his test, Green enclosed his participants in isolated rooms made with walls constructed entirely of copper, which would block electricity from any other sources.  Although ordinary participants had expected electrical readings related to breathing or heartbeat, the healers were generating electrical surges higher than 60 volts during healing sessions, as measured by electrometers placed on the healers themselves and on all four walls.  Video recordings of the healers showed these voltage surges had nothing to do with physical movement.  Studies of the nature of the healing energy of Chinese Qigong masters have provided evidence of the presence of photon emission and electromagnetic fields during healing sessions.  These sudden surges of energy may be physical evidence of a healer’s greater coherence – his ability to marshal his own quantum energy and transfer it to the less organized recipient.”  -Lynne McTaggart, “The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe,” (194)

Gregg Braden, author of many books combining science and spirituality found one thing in common amongst all the monks, nuns, abbots, and shamans he interviewed.  Having searched high mountain villages, remote monasteries, and forgotten holy texts looking for the commonality between various forms of prayer, meditation, and energy healing he came to one inescapable conclusion:  The key is feeling.  Much like the “Law of Attraction” one must first feel the inner sensations of peace, love, health, and abundance in order to attract and transmit that energy.

In the spring of 1998, I had the opportunity to facilitate a combined research trip and pilgrimage into the highlands of central Tibet for 22 days.  During that time the group and I found ourselves immersed in some of the most magnificent, rugged, pristine, and remote land remaining on the planet today.  Along the way, we visited 12 monasteries, 2 nunneries, and some of the most beautiful humans that you could ever imagine including monks, nuns, nomads, and pilgrims.  It was during that time that I found myself face-to-face with the abbot of one of the monasteries and got the chance to ask the question that we’d traveled so far and long to ask … Through our translator, I asked him the same question that I’d asked every monk and nun we’d met throughout our pilgrimage.  ‘When we see your prayers,’ I began, ‘what are you doing?  When we watch you intone and chant for 14 and 16 hours a day; when we see the bells, bowls, gongs, chimes, mudras, and mantras on the outside, what’s happening to you on the inside?’  A powerful sensation rippled through my body as the translator shared the abbot’s answer.  ‘You’ve never seen our prayers,’ he said, ‘because a prayer cannot be seen … What you’ve seen is what we do to create the feeling in our bodies.  Feeling is the prayer!’  How beautiful, I thought.  And how simple!  Just as the late 20th century experiments had shown, it’s human feeling and emotion that affect the stuff our reality is made of – it’s our inner language that changes the atoms, electrons, and photons of the outer world.”  -Gregg Braden, “The Divine Matrix” (84)

Perhaps mind and matter are like two sides of the same coin.  To study such an effect, you could take a ribbon and write mind on the inside and matter on the outside.  Now, as you wiggle the ribbon, you’ll find very strong correlations between mind and matter, yet in a fundamental sense never the twain shall meet.  Then one day, while you’re distracted for a moment, a mischievous friend cuts your ribbon, creates a half-twist, and carefully tapes it back together.  Later you pick up the altered ribbon and proceed to ponder the abyss between mind and matter by absent-mindedly tracing a finger along the matter side of the ribbon.  To your astonishment, you find that your finger ends up on the mind side!  This is because the ribbon was transformed into a Mobius strip by your friend’s half-twist, and this topological curiosity has only one side.  The lesson is that sometimes simple twists in conventional concepts can unify things that appear to be quite different, like mind and matter.  Some believe that consciousness may be the unifying ‘substance’ from which mind and matter arise.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (160)


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Telekinesis – Mind Over Matter

One of the most well-researched and fascinating branches of psi science is active-psi or Psychokinesis (PK).  Also known as Telekinesis and mind over matter, PK is the ability to mentally influence a physical system or object.  The most common method to test for active-psi is to isolate a volunteer from a target such as an inanimate object or a random system like a coin toss, dice roll or radioactive decay, then see if the person can mentally influence the target in a repeatable manner.

The dice-tossing experiment is the epitome of simplicity.  A die face is chosen in advance, then one or more dice are tossed while a person wishes for that face to turn up.  If the person’s intention matches the resulting die face, then a ‘hit’ is scored.  If more hits are obtained than expected by chance over many dice tosses, that’s evidence for PK.  In 1989, when psychologist Diane Ferrari and I were at Princeton University, we used meta-analysis to assess the combined evidence for PK effects in dice experiments.  We searched all the relevant English-language journals for the dice experiments published from the 1930s to 1989 … We found 73 relevant publications, representing the efforts of 52 investigators from 1935 to 1987.  Over that half-century, some 2,500 people attempted to mentally influence 2,600,000 dice throws in 148 different experiments, and just over 150,000 dice-throws in 31 control studies where no mental influence was applied to the dice … The odds that the dice studies were due to chance alone were 10^96 to 1 (that’s 10 with 96 zeros after it).  By contrast, the results of control experiments were well within chance expectation.  So something else was clearly going on.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (149)

When self-professed so-called rational, logically-minded “skeptics” hum and haw about the amazing findings in psi-science, I like to visually show them the odds against chance of various controlled and peer-reviewed studies.  Dean Radin and Diane Ferrari’s meta-analysis of psychokinetic dice experiments yielded a ratio of 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 to 1 odds against chance.  On what grounds can such “rational skeptics” claim these odds to be mere coincidence?

If all this is true, then why aren’t the casinos going out of business?  And why don’t prayers work more reliably? The truth is that no one knows – yet.  These experiments suggest that mind and matter are indeed related to a small degree that is statistically repeatable under controlled conditions.  But we’ve barely scratched the surface of a phenomenon that’s still profoundly mysterious.  So offering answers to all the ‘but why’ questions evoked by these data, given our present state of knowledge, is terribly premature.  I think a more reasonable question to ask at this point is: If the results of the dice experiments suggest a genuine mind-matter interaction, then there ought to be corroborating evidence from similar experiments using other types of physical targets.  And there is.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (153)

Another popular type of PK experiment involves using Random Number Generators (RNGs) which are simple machines that electronically generate up to thousands of random 0’s or 1’s (heads or tails) every second moving an indicator light either one step clockwise or one step counterclockwise.  A volunteer then attempts to mentally influence the RNG outputs by willing more clockwise results (like “heads” known as the “high aim condition”) or more counterclockwise results (like “tails” called the “low aim condition”).  In 1997, after 12 years of RNG experiments at their Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory (PEAR Lab), lead engineer Robert Jahn and his team formally published their findings.  It seems when volunteers mentally intended for high aim conditions, the RNG outputs invariably drifted more clockwise above chance expectation.  When volunteers intended for low aim conditions, the outputs drifted more counterclockwise above chance expectation.  And when withdrawing all mental influence, the RNGs maintained an average baseline/control condition well within chance expectation.  They found that couples working in tandem affected the output more substantially than individuals, and intimate couples affected the output six-fold.  In their final meta-analysis the PEAR team’s RNG experiments yielded 35,000,000,000,000 to 1 odds against chance that their volunteers can and did indeed intentionally influence the machines.

For nearly 30 years at the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) Laboratory, engineer Robert Jahn, his colleague Brenda Dunne, and their team have investigated whether volunteers could affect the random sequences of 0s and 1s produced by electronic RNGs … The results showed conclusively that such influence is real.  What’s important to note is that they demonstrated that couples working together are able to affect the RNG outcomes substantially more than either can do as individuals.  And for a couple who are emotionally bonded, the effects are six times those measured for each of them.  In summarizing their vast archive of experimental results demonstrating nonlocal human awareness, Jahn has said, ‘If people do not believe us after all the results we have produced, then they never will.’”  -Ervin Laszlo and Jude Currivan, “Cosmos” (89)

Since 1997 the Global Consciousness Project has taken collective PK testing to a whole new level by placing RNGs all over the world which run automatically and incessantly in the background as indicators of collective mind-matter occurrences.  The idea is that since RNGs are designed to generate pure randomness, any fluctuations in that randomness (i.e. sudden coalescent movement) can be observed and correlated with various global phenomena.  The Global Consciousness Project began rather by accident when a dozen consciousness researchers with RNGs set up throughout the USA and Europe noticed a sudden coalescence in combined outputs during Princess Diana’s world-wide live televised funeral.

These studies rely on the fact that RNGs are designed to generate pure randomness, technically known as entropy, and that fluctuations in entropy can be detected using simple statistical procedures.  If it turns out that the recorded entropy decreases when one of these random generators is placed near groups engaged in high focused attention, like a group meditation or a deeply engaging spiritual ritual, then we can infer something about the presence of coherent minds possibly infusing the environment with an ordering ‘field’ that reduces entropy.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (182)

As of 2008 the Global Consciousness Project had over 65 active RNGs all over the world covering 6 continents and collected data from 185 events of global interest.  These events tested and verified by independent analysts included natural disasters, celebrity deaths, mass meditations, outbreaks of war/peace, new year celebrations, sporting events and many other occurrences with global influence.  The world-wide level of coalescent RNG output during these 185 events showed a clear deviation from control/baseline outputs with odds against chance of 36,400 to 1.

Perhaps the most dramatic event examined by the project so far occurred on September 11, 2001.  On that day of infamy, now known as 9/11, we found numerous striking changes in the randomness network … In examining the results of this analysis, we noticed that something unusual happened one day.  On September 11, 2001, the curve deviated wildly as compared to all the other days we examined.  As it happened, this curve peaked nearly two hours before a hijacked jet crashed into World Trade Tower 1 in New York City at 8:46 a.m. EDT, and it dropped to its lowest point around 2 p.m., roughly eight hours later.  There’s no easy answer for why the peak in this curve occurred before the terrorist attacks unfolded, although it is reminiscent of the data obtained in the presentiment experiments … The huge drop in this curve within an eight-hour period was the single largest drop for any day in the year 2001 … What caused this large change?  Did the massive coherence of mind on that day induce a massive coherence that was reflected in the RNGs?  It appears so.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (202-4)

After 9/11 the Global Consciousness Project published an article in the Foundation of Physics Letters Journal focusing on the anomalous data gathered on that fateful day.  They proved with odds against chance of 1,000,000 to 1 that an “autocorrelation,” such as mass change in attention or emotion, caused the normally random output to behave in a dramatically non-random way.

Scientifically and mathematically it has been documented and proven beyond reasonable doubt that PK does exist.  Unfortunately our collective understanding of how it works and our proficiency at using it is very limited.  Some particularly gifted people, however, have been able to elicit measurable and repeatable PK effects under laboratory conditions.  Russian psychic Nina Kulagina stunned Western scientists in 1968 by moving a multitude of stationary objects using her mind including matches, bread, bowls, cigar tubes, and salt shakers.  She was also able stop or alter the course of objects already in motion, make mental impressions on film, and speed up or stop a frog’s heart!  Ingo Swann, a New York psychic can change the temperature of objects near him and affect the magnetic field of a magnetometer.  In 2001 University of Arizona psychology professor Gary Schwartz conducted a large-scale spoon-bending experiment with his students resulting in over 60 bent forks and spoons!


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Telepathy – Mind Reading

The term “telepathy” was coined in 1882 by Frederic Myers, founder of the Society for Psychical Research, during his investigation into what was formerly known as “thought transference.”  Reports and documented cases of thought transference abound in almost every culture dating back for millennia, but during the 20th century, the scientific method was applied and repeatable experiments were performed which proved, with combined odds against chance of trillions to one, that telepathy is indeed a genuine phenomenon.

The most common method of testing perceptual-psi (ESP/telepathy) is to isolate a test subject from a hidden target object or person placed at a distance and see if the test subject can accurately describe the target or mentally influence the other person.  Hundreds of variations have been performed on experiments following this basic design:

A classic experiment in telepathy was reported in 1923 by Dr. H. I. F. W. Brugmans and his colleagues in the Department of Psychology at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands.  In this experiment, a 23 year-old physics student named Van Dam was investigated for his claimed telepathic abilities.  He was placed inside a curtained booth, blindfolded, and asked to place his arm under the curtain to select one square on a 6 x 8 checkerboard placed on a table next to the curtain.  The target square Van Dam was attempting to select was determined randomly by the experimenter on each trial.  An assistant experimenter knew the target square and tried to mentally influence Van Dam’s arm movements to guide him to select the correct target square … The results of the experiment were extremely significant, with 60 successes out of 187 trials rather than the 4 expected by chance.  That’s associated with odds against chance of 121 trillion to 1.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (82-3)

A second classic experiment that has withstood the test of time is the ESP card test, as popularized by J. B. Rhine’s Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke University.  This test involved cards imprinted with one of five symbols: circle, square, wavy lines, star and triangle … In a typical experimental run, the deck was thoroughly shuffled and then one person would select each card in turn and try to mentally send the symbol on that card to a distant person.  This technique made it possible to collect hundreds of trials quickly, in a wide variety of environments, and under controlled conditions … Rhine’s 1940 book, Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years combined his 60 years of ESP research, 188 different experiments with thousands of trials, in which even the most highly controlled studies had odds against chance of 375 trillion to 1.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (84-5)

In 1933, Hubert E. Pearce Jr., a student of J.B. Rhine’s at Duke University introduced himself saying that he had inherited his mother’s clairvoyant abilities and would be willing to scientifically test and verify his skills.  For the next seven months, Rhine worked with Pearce devising, performing, and documenting the now famous Pearce-Pratt distance telepathy tests at his Duke Parapsychology Lab.  The experiment consisted of 700 runs through 25-card ESP decks with Pearce acting as the telepathic receiver while another student, Gaither Pratt, was the sender.  Pratt simply laid down one card per minute and concentrated on it, while Pearce, from another building on campus, attempted to telepathically read and/or clairvoyantly see each card.  After 1,850 trials, Pearce guessed the correct card 558 times (32%), which is 188 times above chance expectation (20%).  Though this 12% difference may not sound like much, it is associated with odds against chance of 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 to 1.

Another popular and often replicated psi experiment is known as the “Ganzfield” telepathy test.  In a ganzfield test, Participant A sits in a comfortable, reclining chair, wears headphones playing pink noise (peaceful waterfall sound), has halved ping-pong balls placed over their eyes, and a soft red light shined on them.  This type of sensory deprivation results in a dreamy state of awareness in which the subject becomes more open to mental suggestions/impressions.  Once Participant 1 is fully immersed in this “ganzfield condition,” Participant 2 sits in another room watching a freeze-frame picture on a TV screen and attempts to telepathically send that image to Participant 1.  Later, Participant 1 comes out of the ganzfield state, discusses their impressions, is shown 4 images, and must choose which one they think Participant 2 was sending them.

From 1974 through 2004 a total of 88 ganzfield experiments reporting 1,008 hits in 3,145 trials were conducted.  The combined hit rate was 32% as compared to the chance-expected 25%.  This 7% above-chance effect is associated with odds against chance of 29,000,000,000,000,000,000 (or 29 quintillion) to 1.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (120)

The modern ganzfield experiment is as close to the perfect psi experiment as anyone knows how to conduct.  Until recently, the ganzfield experiments were largely unknown outside of the discipline of parapsychology.  Then, in 1994, psychologists Daryl Bem from Cornell University and Charles Honorton from the University of Edinburgh published a meta-analysis of ganzfield studies in Psychological Bulletin, a well-regarded academic psychology journal.  That paper provided strong evidence for a genuine psi effect.  Bem and Honorton’s review of earlier ganzfield studies estimated an effect with overall odds against chance of 48 billion to 1.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (117-8)

In Upton Sinclair’s 1930 book Mental Radio he cataloged a series of picture-drawing telepathy experiments performed in collaboration with his ESP-gifted wife Mary Craig Sinclair.  During these tests Upton or friends/family would sketch a small object and then Mary, in another room, another house, or even miles away, would mentally perceive the image and reproduce the sketch herself.  Mental Radio contains scores of these sketches which show incredible similarities far beyond what anyone would expect by chance.  In conclusion to these experiments, Upton Sinclair wrote, “there isn’t a thing in the world that leads me to [write this book] except the conviction which has been forced upon me that telepathy is real, and that loyalty to the nature of the universe makes it necessary for me to say so … It is foolish to be convinced without evidence, but it is equally foolish to refuse to be convinced by real evidence.”

A second example of picture-drawing experiments is described in the book Mind to Mind, published in 1948, by French researcher Rene Warcollier … Warcollier was already convinced that telepathy existed through the work of Rhine and others, so his books primarily explored how it worked … He noted that images were not transmitted like photographs but were ‘scrambled, broken up into component elements which are often transmuted into a new pattern.’  What Warcollier demonstrated is compatible with what modern cognitive neuroscience has learned about how visual images are constructed by the brain.  It implies that telepathic perceptions bubble up into awareness from the unconscious and are probably processed in the brain in the same way that we generate images in dreams.  And thus telepathic ‘images’ are far less certain than sensory-driven images and subject to distortion.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (92-93)

A third picture-drawing experiment was conducted in 1941 at Cambridge University by psychologist Whatley Carington.  He recruited 250 students to attempt to replicate sketches in a series of 5 experiments, with 10 drawings each, for a total of 50 targets.  By the end of the study Carington had collected 2,200 student sketches which he then cross-matched with the original 50 possible targets.  Amazingly he found 1,209 drawings (55%) were similar to the targets!  And this is from 250 different students with no particular ESP gifts or previous experience.

Another telepathy test that has been scientifically investigated for nearly a century is the sense of being stared at.  In a typical study of this sort, Participant 1 stands with his back turned to Particpant 2, who stands a few meters behind him.  Next Partcipant 2 flips a coin to decide whether he will stare at the back of Participant 1’s head for 10 seconds, or look away for 10 seconds.  After the 10 seconds pass, Participant 1 records their impression, yes or no, and the coin is flipped again for the next trial.

British biologist Rupert Sheldrake has popularized experiments based on this simple design … and under more controlled conditions, such as those involving use of blindfolds, no trial-by-trial feedback, and even more secure conditions such as having [participants] stare through a window from a distance.  I found 60 such experiments involving a total of 33,357 trials from publications cited by Sheldrake and others.  The overall success rate in these experiments was 54.5% where chance expectation is 50%.  The overall odds against chance are a staggering 202 octodecillion (that’s 20,200,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) to 1.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (127)

In over a dozen scientific experiments over the last 45 years, using EEG and MRI brain scanning technology, pairs of identical twins have been separated into different rooms, and one of them subjected to visual or emotional stimulus which is then found to register on both of their brains simultaneously.  This has also been shown to happen (with a lower correlation rate) between family, friends, and complete strangers as well.

The design used in these electroencephalograph or ‘EEG correlation’ experiments asks, in effect, whether poking one person will produce an ouch response in a distant partner.  It’s not recommended to poke people in the brain, so instead we use a stimulus like a flashing light to cause one of the brains to jump electrically in a predictable way, and then we look at the other, distant brain to see if it’s jumping at the same time.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (136)

Psychophysiologist Jacobo Grinberg-Zylberbaum and his colleagues from the National Autonomous University of Mexico reported a series of studies in which they claimed to detect simultaneous brain responses in the EEGs of separated pairs of people.  One of their studies was published in the journal Physics Essays, stimulating another round of replication attempts.  In 2003, a successful replication was reported in Neuroscience Letters by EEG specialist Jiri Wackermann and his colleagues … Wackermann’s team concluded that ‘We are facing a phenomenon which is neither easy to dismiss as a methodological failure or a technical artifact nor understood as to its nature.  No biophysical mechanism is presently known that could be responsible for the observed correlations between EEGs of two separated subjects.’ Another successful replication, this time reported by Leanna Standish of Bastyr University and her colleagues, was recently reported in the medical journal Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine.  They conducted an EEG correlation experiment with the receiving participant located in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner … They found a highly significant increase in brain activity (odds against chance of 14,000 to 1) in the receiving person’s visual cortex (in the back of the brain) while the distant partner was viewing a flickering light.  The same group later successfully replicated this finding.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (137-8)

The man who invented the EEG, Hans Berger, actually became interested in the brain and the powers of the human psyche after a telepathic experience he had in early adulthood.  It began when one day, as a soldier during a military training exercise, he was thrown off his horse and nearly trampled by a horse-drawn cannon:

Miraculously, the driver of the artillery battery managed to stop the horses just in time.  The accident left Hans thoroughly shaken but without serious injury.  At that very moment, many miles away in his family’s home, Hans’s older sister was suddenly overwhelmed with an ominous certainty that something bad had happened to Hans.  She anxiously insisted that their father contact him, and so he did via telegram.  That evening, when Hans received the telegram, he was initially concerned, as he had never before received a telegram from his father.  Then, upon reading his sister’s urgent concern about his well-being, he knew that his feelings of intense fear earlier in the day had somehow reached his sister.  Many years later, Hans wrote, ‘This is a case of spontaneous telepathy in which at a time of mortal danger, and as I contemplated certain death, I transmitted my thoughts, while my sister, who was particularly close to me, acted as the receiver.’”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (22)

If telepathy is a real fact, it is very possible that it is operating at every moment and everywhere, but with too little intensity to be noticed, or else it is operating in the presence of obstacles which neutralize the effect at the same moment that it manifests itself.  We produce electricity at every moment, the atmosphere is continually electrified, we move among magnetic currents, yet millions of human beings lived for thousands of years without having suspected the existence of electricity.  It may be the same with telepathy.”  -French philosopher and Nobel laureate Henri Bergson in presidential address to the Society for Psychical Research in London, May 1913


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Psi Science

Psi Science is the rigorous on-going scientific pursuit of experimenting and testing the validity and reliability of so-called psychic or paranormal phenomena.  Common psi abilities include such things as mind-to-mind connections (telepathy), mind-over-matter interactions, (psychokinesis), perceiving distant places, people, objects, or events (clairvoyance), perceiving the future (precognition), prophetic dreams,déjà vu, spiritual healing, the power of prayer and intention, intuition, gut feelings, and the sense of being stared at.

There are words for psi experiences in every language, from Arabic to Zulu, Czech to Manx Gaelic.  The universality of the words reflects the fact that these phenomena are basic to human experience.  And indeed psi experiences have been reported by people in all cultures, throughout history, and at all ages and education levels.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (6)

A meta-analysis of every psi experiment performed and published (in the English language) over the past century was recently conducted by Dean Radin, senior scientist at the Institute of Noetic Sciences.  Statistically analyzing the data from all 1,019 controlled studies produced the astonishing result of 1.3×10104 to 1 against chance – that is: 1,300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 to 1 odds against the results being due to coincidence.

After a century of increasingly sophisticated investigations and more than a thousand controlled studies with combined odds against chance of 10104 to 1, there is now strong evidence that some psi phenomena exist.  While this is an impressive statistic, all it means is that the outcomes of these experiments are definitely not due to coincidence.  We’ve considered other common explanations like selective reporting and variations in experimental quality, and while those factors do moderate the overall results, there can be little doubt that overall something interesting is going on.  It seems increasingly likely that as physics continues to refine our understandings of the fabric of reality, a theoretical outlook for a rational explanation for psi will eventually be established.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (275)

Scientists, psychologists, academic institutions and governments have  been conducting psi research with consistently positive results for over a century yet wide-spread acceptance of the existence of such phenomena is curiously absent.  In 2002, a review of the 57 most popular introductory psychology textbooks in common use at Universities showed that 24 contained no mention of psi whatsoever, and the 33 that did devoted an average of only 2.4 pages to the subject.  Not only is the voluminous amount of available psi research mysteriously absent from the textbooks, but the second most often cited references come from the magazine, Skeptical Inquirer.

This should make your hair stand up.  It’s like trying to sustain a serious scientific discussion based on citations from tabloids … If this is the type of scholarly information being fed to impressionable psychology students, it’s not surprising that whole generations of future academic psychologists assume there’s nothing to it.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (289-90)

I assume that the reader is familiar with the idea of extrasensory perception … telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition and psychokinesis.  These disturbing phenomena seem to deny all our usual scientific ideas.  How we should like to discredit them!  Unfortunately the statistical evidence is overwhelming.  It is very difficult to rearrange one’s ideas so as to fit these new facts in.”  -Alan Turing

Simply stated, there is no place in the old Newtonian/Darwinian models for the existence of psi, and this more than anything is likely responsible for the lack of mass acceptance of psi as a genuine phenomenon.  In a material Universe where mind is merely an emergent evolutionary mechanism, such abilities as clairvoyance and precognition must be cast aside as superstition or coincidence.  Regardless, valid psi science continues its march forward while the skeptical establishment and its indoctrinated minions religiously defend the dogma of their crumbling material worldview.

Pick up practically any scientific or scholarly journal and you’ll quickly find that researchers are always engaged in vigorous debates and controversies.  The moment a discipline collapses into a single set of beliefs, constructs, or even methods, it’s no longer science, it’s religion.”  -Dean Radin, “Entangled Minds” (283)

When a belief is widely held in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, we call it a superstition.  By that criterion, the most egregious superstition of modern times, perhaps of all time, is the ‘scientific’ belief in the non-existence of psi.”  -Thomas Etter


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